Last modified at 11/2/2013 11:44 AM by Koen Zomers


I started off running pfSense virtualized on a Microsoft Hyper-V instance. This turned out to work perfectly smooth with the legacy network adapters in Hyper-V, however the speeds achieved through the virtual network interface are pretty bad. When upgrading my internet connection to 120 mbit/sec down and 10 mbit/sec up, I had to upgrade my router as well. That's when I decided to create a dedicated piece of hardware to run pfSense on. In this article I will describe the hardware I've used and will review its stability and power consumption after almost a year of using it.

Hardware demands

I had a few demands for the new hardware to run pfSense on:

  • It had to be in a 19 inch 1U height rackmount case since I have all my stuff in a rack already
  • It has to be as efficient with power usage as possible
  • It must be stable
  • It must be capable of routing at high speeds between networks (> 200 mbit/sec)


After spending quite some time browsing forums to find out on what hardware others have their pfSense running on, I had put my hardware list together (prices were valid at the time of purchase, March 2011, and may have changed):

  • SuperMicro X7SPA-HF-D525 motherboard (specifications - Tweakers PriceWatch - approx. 190 euro)
  • SuperMicro SC503L-200B 1U 19 inch server case (specifications - Tweakers PriceWatch - approx. 80 euro)
  • SuperMicro MCP-220-00051-0N 2,5 inch harddisk mount (specifications - Tweakers PriceWatch - approx 6 euro)
  • Kingston ValueRAM 2x 2GB SO DIMM DDR3 800 MHz (specifications - Tweakers PriceWatch - approx 12 euro each)
  • Kingston SSDNow S100 - 16 GB - 2,5 inch (specifications - Tweakers PriceWatch - approx. 50 euro)
    Note: 1.5 year later this Kingston SSDNow disk has crashed and been replaced twice three times already and now eventually has been replaced by a OCZ SSD instead which until now runs much more reliable has also become broken after a few months of usage. I would advice against using a ssd disk in a pfSense server. Read more on it on my added note further down below.

For about 350 euro all together I would have a state of the art, high performing, though low power consuming router.

Assembling the products

Once I got the parts in, I started assembling it all, which was a very easy job. The motherboard is of mini-ITX size, so it fitted well in the small 19 inch 1U rackmount case I ordered. At first I used an USB disk in it, since the SSD had delivery problems. The parts mounted together look like:

As you can see, the board has a handy USB connector on the board itself so you can easily hook up an USB disk and put it inside the casing.

One noticeable thing was that the power connector from the power supply in the case missed 4 pins:

This while being the recommended case for this board by SuperMicro themselves. So I contacted SuperMicro and asked them why a recommended casing could miss the 4 pins. They mentioned that these were not required for this board to operate correctly, so I connected the board and powered it up. After using it for almost a year now, indeed, it works fine without the four pins being connected to a power supply, so no worries there.

Once I got the SSD in, I replaced the USB disk with the SSD and put it in its SuperMicro 2,5 bracket:

Added note 26th May 2013, lessons learned in this matter:
After over a year now, I have had three Solid State Drives which simply gave up after a few months in this machine. Two being Kingston branded, another one being of OCZ. This to me tells it can't be a coincedence anymore and that the way pfSense constantly writes small portions of data to the disk simply isn't suitable for SSDs. While waiting for the replacement units of the broken SSDs, I kept using the 2,5 inch disk shown on the images at the top of this page. This never had any issues. The total power consumption of this pfSense server was 1 watt higher with the 2,5 inch disk compared to the SSD, but if that does give me stability of the server over a longer period and does not make me have to return to the shop every few months, that be the case and 2,5 inch is there to stay. I therefore recommend NOT to use a SSD in your pfSense server (it doesn't need the speed of it anyway) but use a normal 2,5 inch or 3,5 inch SATA disk.

pfSense Installation


After installing pfSense 2.1 on it and configuring the server, it was up and running in no-time. This board has two gigabit network interfaces. I used one to connect to my internet modem and the other to connect to my LAN. I'm using VLANing in pfSense and on my network switches to separate network traffic over the 1 LAN network interface on the server. Works like a charm. It for example allows me to separate wireless traffic from cabled traffic. Even if someone would break into my wireless network, pfSense would only admit very limited traffic from it towards the internet and not to my local network. Perfect.


Power consumption

One of my demands was that it would be low in power consumption since it will be running 24/7. I measured the power usage using Plugwise over a period of a few months.


As you can see, the usage is steady and at about 0,64 kWh per day which translates into a continous power usage of about 27 watts when using the USB disk and 26 watts when using the SSD disk (november/december period). Assuming electricy prices of 0,2218 euro per kWh this translates into 14 eurocents a day, 4,20 euro per month, 51,10 euro per year on the electricity bill.

Resource usage

The next question of course would be if this server would be powerful enough to handle data throughput at high rates. Let's first look at its resource usage when being used with normal traffic at about 1 Mbit/sec down and up at the same time.

As you can see it's eating pretty much nothing of its resources. The CPU usage is broken in this pfSense version, so I'll add a screenprint of the system activity diagnostics output:
As you can see the CPU is also not doing much with averages of 0.05 usage.

So we can conclude it's quite an overkill on capacity actually.

High throughput

Next test would be to pull high volume data through the pfSense server. For this test I have hooked up one machine to one VLAN and another machine to another VLAN which both share the same physical network interface on the pfSense server, but route their between traffic via pfSense and both being connected to my Linksys SRW2024 gigabit switch. I copied over 200 GB of content and monitored the pfSense statistics.

The files were being copied at a rate of about 310 megabit per second:

This is probably more hitting the limits of my machines on both sides than it is challenging the pfSense server hardware as its resource usage during this copy process remained incredibly low:



Since the motherboard is passively cooled, you might wonder what its temperatures are and if it really doesn't need any fans either on the CPU or in the case. The answer is: no it doesn't. I'm using my machine in a non airconditioned environment and temperatures never get up to more than 48 degrees Celcius. This can easily be seen by utilizing the IPMI sensor functionality on this motherboard:



This board is equipped with built-in KVMoverIP functionality. Really handy to control your firewall server remotely in case it gets stuck or needs to be rebooted. Check out this page to see what you can do with this functionality.


This shows that the hardware is more than capable enough to meet the requirements I have set. It is low in energy usage and has more than enough power to handle high volume traffic throughput and is therefore ready for the future with gigabit connections. Its additional featureset of providing IPMI sensors and KVM over IP make it a robust and very suitable system for running a firewall. In the nearly a year I'm using it now, I haven't had any problems with the hardware, no lockups, no freezes, nothing.